Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware

Computer security

Computer security

Computer software

Computer software


Monthly Archives: June 2016

Different Types of Servers

A server is a device with a particular set of programs or protocols that provide various services. Together, a server and its clients form a client/server network, which provides routing systems and centralized access to information, resources, stored data, etc.

At the most ground level, one can consider it as a technology solution that serves files, data, print, fax resources and multiple computers. The advanced server versions, like Windows Small Business Server 2003 R2 enable the user to handle the accounts and passwords, allow or limit the access to shared resources, automatically support the data and access the business information remotely. For example, a file server is a machine that maintains files and allows clients or users to upload and download files from it. Similarly, a web server hosts websites and allows users to access these websites. Clients mainly include computers, printers, faxes or other devices that can be connected to the server. By using a server, one can securely share files and resources like fax machines and printers. Hence, with a server network, employees can access the Internet or company e-mail simultaneously.

Types of Servers

Server Platform
Server platform is the fundamental hardware or software for a system which acts as an engine that drives the server. It is often used synonymously with an operating system.

Application Server
Also known as a type of middleware, it occupies a substantial amount of computing region between database servers and the end user, and is commonly used to connect the two.

Audio/Video Server
It provides multimedia capabilities to websites by helping the user to broadcast streaming multimedia content.

Chat Server
It serves the users to exchange data in an environment similar to Internet newsgroup which provides real-time discussion capabilities.

Fax Server
It is one of the best options for organizations that seek minimum incoming and outgoing telephone resources, but require to fax actual documents.

FTP Server
It works on one of the oldest of the Internet services, the file transfer protocol. It provides a secure file transfer between computers while ensuring file security and transfer control.

Groupware Server
It is a software designed that enables the users to work together, irrespective of the location, through the Internet or a corporate intranet and to function together in a virtual atmosphere.

IRC Server
It is an ideal option for those looking for real-time discussion capabilities. Internet Relay Chat comprises different network servers that enable the users to connect to each other through an IRC network.

List Server
It provides a better way of managing mailing lists. The server can be either open interactive discussion for the people or a one-way list that provides announcements, newsletters or advertising.

Mail Server
It transfers and stores mails over corporate networks through LANs, WANs and across the Internet.

News Server
It serves as a distribution and delivery source for many public news groups, approachable over the USENET news network.

Proxy Server
It acts as a mediator between a client program and an external server to filter requests, improve performance and share connections.

Telnet Server
It enables the users to log on to a host computer and execute tasks as if they are working on a remote computer.

Virtual Servers
A virtual server is just like a physical computer because it is committed to an individual customer’s demands, can be individually booted and maintains privacy of a separate computer. Basically, the distance among shared and dedicated (hosting) servers is reduced providing freedom to other customers, at a less cost. Now, it has become omnipresent in the data center.

Web Server
It provides static content to a web browser by loading a file from a disk and transferring it across the network to the user’s web browser. This exchange is intermediated by the browser and the server, communicating using HTTP.
Other types of servers include Open source servers, Gopher server (like a plain document, similar to WWW and the hypertext being absent), and Name server (applies name-service protocol).

The various servers can be categorized according to their applications. Servers along with managing network resources are also dedicated, i.e., they perform no other task other than their server tasks.

Computer Technician Salary

unduhan (2)With growth and development in the software and hardware industries, the need for skilled computer services and network technicians has assumed great significance. Teenagers who have keen interest in computers, and who can solve problems related to computer hardware and software at the earliest, have wonderful career opportunities in this field.

The work experience one gains as a computer technician can help enhance practical knowledge and understanding in this field. For those who are interested in advanced studies and certification programs, it can be of great help in everything from job interview to school presentation. With computer being a necessity in our daily life, getting them checked and repaired frequently is necessary. The salary range of these technicians has risen in the last few years.

Factors that Determine the Salary
The average salary of a computer technician is dependent on various factors. They are mentioned below.

▸ Work experience
▸ Type of employer
▸ Industry
▸ Educational qualification
▸ Geographical location of the job

Average Salary
▸ Based on the above factors, the salary of a computer technician varies for every state and organization. According to salary dot com, in New York, it is around $40,000, while in California, it is around $35,000.

▸ According to PayScale, computer service and network technicians who have less than a year’s work experience earn anywhere between US$23,804 – $50,453.

▸ As work experience increases, prospects of getting higher salary increase to a large extent. Salary range, according to PayScale, for experienced computer and network technicians is $31,682 – $65,804.

▸ ‘Employer type’ plays a significant role in determining their earning potential. It is obvious that big multinational companies offer handsome salaries and hefty perks.

▸ Those who have suitable work experience can work independently, and they can earn anywhere between US$65,000 to as low as US$35,000. This depends on the success of the technicians in establishing good contacts and popularity in their area. Those who have been able to establish themselves in this industry can get work through good contacts and marketing skills.

▸ According to the BLS, the annual average salary for computer user support specialists was $46,420, and the median annual wage for computer network support specialists was $59,090 in May 2012. While the lowest 10% earned less than $34,930, the top 10% earned more than $96,850.

▸ Since this field demands some good knowledge about computers, educational qualification does play a crucial role in deciding the salaries. Those having a high school degree can make anywhere between US$30,000 to US$50,000. However, interest and an urge to work in this field is necessity to succeed.

▸ The salary of these technicians has the potential to increase, as they gain experience, education, or additional certifications. Indeed, these are the professionals who are always paid for their work and skills.

Job Description
There are different types of computers manufactured today, like desktop computers, laptops, palmtops, and many others. While basic designing and circuitry of various brands remain the same, there can be significant variation in the software designing. So troubleshooting problems of various computers can be at times challenging. Here are some job duties of a computer technician.

▸ Participate in the designing, drawing, and implementation of computer networks in firms.
▸ Perform computer repairs at homes, offices, and places of commercial interest.
▸ Schedule times and manage contacts with respect to carrying out responsibilities of the job.
▸ Must have good communication skills coupled with loads of patience.
▸ Possess skills related to computer hardware troubleshooting, and should be able to solve problems related to internal circuitry.
▸ Must be available 24 hours a day, and should be ready to work at night or during weekends. It’s not a typical 9-to-5 job.
▸ Remain updated about the latest developments in the technological field with respect to anti-virus software and other required tools in their work.

As complexity of jobs have increased in this field, clients look out for professionals who have the ability to integrate theoretical knowledge with practical applications. Students who love working on computer projects and have an inclination towards hardware engineering can work part-time to better their on-the-job-experience.

Threats and Protection Techniques

cyberthreatprevention_imgComputer security is that branch of information technology which deals with the protection of data on a network or a stand-alone desktop. As every organization is dependent on computers, the technology of its security requires constant development. Here are the different types of computer security.

Hardware Security

Even if the computer is not plugged into a network, a person can open its cabinet and gain access to the hard drives, steal them and misuse or destroy the data saved on them or, damage the device altogether. It is also necessary to remember that in case one dissembles his computer hardware, the risk of losing coverage of warranty becomes very high.

The security of computer hardware and its components is also necessary for the overall protection of data. If a stand-alone system contains some important or classified information, it should be kept under constant surveillance. Locking system for a desktop and a security chain for a laptop are basic security devices for your machine. Certain disk locks are available in various sizes, which control the removal of the CPU cover protecting internal components of the system.
For example, you will find disk/tape drive lock, computer case lock with cable and padlock, security cables, etc. A disk lock guards all the internal access points located on the CPU and protects them.

Software Security

Network Security
Computer networks are an integral part of any organization these days, as they facilitate the free flow of data and services to the authorized users. However, such networks also pose a security threat in case the data is classified and confidential, thus making network security a vital necessity.

As the data is available only for authorized users, it is possible for hackers to pretend to be one, by providing the correct user name and password. Computer network security can be disrupted or encroached in the following ways:

Denial of Service
Denial-of-service is meant to disable a computer or a network and can be executed with limited resources. It is one of the most common forms of attacks by hackers and can effectively disable the whole network of an organization. Denial of service attack makes a computer resource unavailable to its intended user.
To carry out this kind of attack, hackers generally flood a network or the access routers with bogus traffic. They also make attempts to disrupt connections between two machines and prevent individuals from accessing a service.

Trojan Horse
Trojan horse is common and one of the most potential threats to computer security. They are malicious and security-breaking programs, disguised as something which is considered as non-malicious by the security software. They are a useful tool for hackers who try to break into private networks. Hackers generally attach Trojan horse to a file, which triggers a virus or remotely controlled software, giving the hacker complete control over the computer.

Viruses and Worms
Viruses and worms are well-known for their destructive nature and the property of replicating themselves. They are basically pieces of computer program codes, which are written by hackers and other computer geniuses.

Sniffing is the act of intercepting TCP/IP packets while they are getting transferred on a network. The interception generally takes place through simple eavesdropping done by a hacker.


It is one of the most essential type of network security in today’s world of Internet. Firewall is a filter that prevents fraud websites from accessing your computer and damaging the data. However, a firewall is not a great option for securing the servers on the Internet because the main objective of a server is granting access to unknown users to connect to various web pages.

Security Software
Along with firewall, try installing a good anti-virus and security software to enhance the security level of your computer system.
Data Security

Although uncommon, hardware malfunction can prove to be a major threat to your data in the computer. The life span of hard disks is always limited because of surrounding factors and this can amount to a severe loss of all your files saved on the disk, if there is no proper backup of those files made on any other system.

Keep Backup
It is important to avoid data and information loss in case of hard disk crashes. The only solution is to regularly keep backups of all the data on other media such as magnetic tapes, CD-ROM, etc. It is a good practice to store the media off-site and in case of a disk crash, restore the information from the backup media onto the new disk.
In case a backup media is not affordable, one should try to store the files on at least two different media devices. These media devices should be systematically kept at a place which is safe and secured, as the information contained may be confidential. People usually have backup for database files, spreadsheet files and large documents. As the technical constraints are always there, it is better to take regular backups, in order to avoid any loss of information.

Install a software program on your computer that will clear all the old, unused files and registry keys. It will also help to detect malware and save your computer from a severe damage caused by it. Keep your system in the loop of latest updates and security alerts or else, it will become vulnerable to security threats.
It is important to keep a record of technical support consultants and software documentations, like manuals and guides to make them accessible to the staff members of the company.

Computer Freezes After Startup

While working on computers, there is a high probability that your system may freeze for no rhyme or reason. If your computer freezes frequently, it is time you first figure out the reasons behind such malfunctioning of your system.

Reasons Why Computer Freezes on Startup

There are myriad reasons for a computer freezing on startup. Following are a few causes, which could be detrimental in freezing your system more often.

  • Defective hardware (Electrostatic discharge and loose connections between hardware and computer motherboard)
  • Faulty software (Codes using lot of RAM; software infected with adbots, viruses and spyware)
  • Bugged operating systems (A corrupted Windows registry of operating system)
  • Infected drivers (Improper installation of drivers, small programs that enable the hardware and software to work in sync)

In all the above, the root cause that answers your query on why computer freezes is, almost all computers today are assembled and so the hardware components are manufactured by different vendors, which may result in hardware malfunctioning of the system. If your software is corrupted with malicious programs through Internet, freezing on startup is a warning sign indicating that your operating system may be at risk. This is because, viruses and spyware usually replicate their code and store them at hidden locations in your system, thereby using up more RAM. This eventually slows down your system. However, if the registry of the operating system is corrupted, then a symptom like computer freezing on startup would indicate warning to reformat your system.

Computer Freezes Shortly After Startup – Fixing the Problem

Sometimes, it may happen that you log into your system and as the system is loading, your computer freezes randomly, and no matter how many times you tap your keys and bang your mouse, the system remains frozen. In that case, I would suggest you to try the following:

  • Reboot your system and set your system in clean boot.
    Click on Start, and type msconfig in the search box of the start menu and click on Enter.
  • The system may prompt you for a confirmation, sometimes asking for an administrator’s password. Type the password and click on Continue.
  • Now, click on selective startup on General tab and under the Selective startup of the General tab, clear the load startup items checkbox.
  • Select Services tab and click the check box for Hide all Microsoft Services. Then click on Disable All.
  • Click OK. And once the system prompts, click on Restart.
  • If your system starts, apply divide and conquer algorithm to detect the non Microsoft service which is causing the problem, if your system is running on Windows Vista or Windows XP.

Once the startup fiasco is solved, check for the registry. Here are some steps to check this.

  • Click on Start.
  • In the search box of startup menu, type REGEDIT. Click Enter.
  • Now find this registry key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\FileSystem
  • Once found, set the NtfsDisable8dot3NameCreation to 1 to delete any duplicate or short versions for DOS names.

Computer Freezes After Startup But Works in Safe Mode – Fixing the Problem

Most people complain about the computer freezing up in Windows Vista and they might also observe that it prompts for the system to start in ‘Safe Mode’, once rebooted. Now before understanding whether this safe mode is advisable or not, it is important to understand what this safe mode is all about. Safe mode is a special way for Windows to load when a system is not starting in the normal mode. Now in the safe mode, not all functions are enabled. Most device drivers are not loaded (like that of printer and scanner). The command files autoexec.bat or config.sys are not run. Standard VGA graphic mode is used and not the normal graphics device driver. In this mode, the system checks for the msdos.sys for information to find the required Window files. So now the question arises, what to do once the system boots in safe mode? To check the root reason for what had caused Windows to load incompletely should be your first plan of action.

Click on Start, and click on control panel. In recent times, if you have added any device driver, try uninstalling it and then attempt a reboot. If your system starts normally, it means that the device was having some conflict with the driver software. Check further for installation of games or new applications and try uninstalling them as well, if you have doubts about their installation. However, if there is no problem with the hardware or the software, then it indicates a corrupt registry issue, which can be resolved only by getting a new installation copy of Windows.

When you face such an issue, do not jump into conclusions, that your system needs reformatting. Check out all the possible causes and try to figure out the core reason why your computer freezes after starting. And yes, one more important thing, always save your data in backup devices like CD or a pen drive. It will save your work at least!